The DieCAST suite of models is characterized by a Z-level stretched vertical
coordinate, and by a horizontal grid based on spherical coordinates with
non-uniform latitudinal increments. A useful added feature of CANDIE
is partial bottom cells for more accurate representation of bathymetry.
The geophysical fluid dynamics
computations are computed in a Free Stream model with low dissipation
numerics.
The models have a rigid lid and an elliptic
pressure solver is used to calculate the surface pressure.
The model uses a ``swamp layer" approximation over land. This is a single
layer a few centimeters thick with a large bottom drag coefficient,
which allows creeping flow over land
(Zuur and Dietrich, 1990).
This is not viscosity and applies only over the land points and not over the
ocean points. It gives very slow creeping
flow over land, after a brief transient which sets up a pressure field
that effectively blocks flow over land as if were a real barrier. This
is a good approximation because the large drag is not applied over the
ocean points. The latest DieCAST approach iterates the rigid-lid pressure
solver to rapidly converge the flow over land to exactly zero, which
even in the rather severe test problem of Von Karman vortex shedding in
the wake of an island, gives almost identical results to the original
``swamp" layer approach (Dietrich and Ko, 1994).

The ``swamp layer" approach enables the elliptic solver to use the
entire grid domain, and so irregular coastlines and islands can be
accomodated by the model. The first version of the model was the Sandia
Ocean Modeling System (SOMS) and is described by Dietrich * et al.* (1990). Next the DieCAST
(Dietrich - Center for Air Sea Technology) model was developed
from SOMS and is
described by Dietrich and Ko (1994).

There are two web sites that describe the DieCAST model

`
http://www.ssc.erc.msstate.edu/DieCAST
http://www.maths.unsw.edu.au/~bxs/DieCAST/MANUAL
`

These sites have a DieCAST model users list, references describing the numerics of the SOMS and DieCAST models, bibliographies of the scientific research done with them, and information on recent model oceanographic applications. A copy of the DieCAST user's manual by Dietrich and Brian Sanderson can be obtained from these sites. While the DieCAST and CANDIE models are different, their DieCAST user's manual is of use for background information.